Toxikologická rizika herbicidů bromoxynilu a ioxynilu
Klíčová slova:benzonitrilové herbicidy, ioxynil, bromoxynil, toxicita, genotoxicita, degradace, způsob účinku
The title herbicides are selective post-emergent contact herbicides currently widely used in the EU and USA to control broad-leaved weeds especially in crops. They are typical inhibitors of photosynthesis acting simultaneously as uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. The review briefly discusses their physical and chemical properties, mode of action, degradation and toxicity. Bromoxynil and Ioxynil are of low-to-moderate toxicity for all the tested species, with no in vivo genotoxicity. Their main metabolites in microbial degradation are the corresponding acids and amides, which are supposedly less toxic.